On October 16, 1991, wind gusts of up to 62 miles per hour were recorded in eastern Washington. The forests, brush, and grasslands were extremely dry. Because of dry, unseasonably warm, and windy conditions, 92 wildfires quickly started.
Approximately 90 percent of the fires started because gale-force winds snapped power lines or trees fell into power lines.
Numerous homes built in the forest presented a challenge for firefighters. During this time, northeast Washington was in the midst of high population growth. Many more homes were built in what we call the wildland urban interface, where homes and forest mix. This is the area where most of the homes were lost to wildfire. There was one fatality during the fire and 114 homes and numerous other structures were destroyed. Wildfires have become more disastrous as people move into the wildland urban interfaces.
Lessons learned and state mobilization established
Homeowners affected by Fire Storm were caught with a lack of knowledge about the wildfire risks where they lived. As a result, the National Fire Protection Association developed a program, Firewise, to educate and assist homeowners in protecting themselves from wildfire. Firewise created a website for a national audience to provide the best available information on wildfire safety for homes. The website provides popular videos and instructional materials for nurseries, landscape professionals, and residents.
Research dating back to the 1960s showed that the two major risk factors for homes during wildfires were:
- A flammable roof, vulnerable to the embers thrown during a wildfire
- Vegetation close to a house that generated enough heat or flames to ignite siding or other parts of the home
During Fire Storm local firefighting resources were overwhelmed with the number of fires. To help communities, the State Mobilization Plan was created after the 1991 Fire Storm. The plan is a way to quickly and efficiently bring in Washington Fire Service personnel and equipment from around the state when a wildfire exceeds a local fire department’s capacities.
These resources can include fire engines, firefighters, aircraft, heavy equipment and Incident Management Teams. These teams – part of the National Incident Management System – are made up of DNR, federal and fire service personnel.
Check out the mobilization process that is under the authority of the Washington State Patrol.
Fire Storm has resulted in a greater local and statewide awareness of the problems associated with people living in the wildland urban interface.
For more information, read the Fire Storm 1991 Case Study
Quick facts about Fire Storm 1991
Maximum wind gust: 62 mph
Homes destroyed: 114
Acres burned: 35,000
Homes threatened: 511
Separate fires: 92
Firefighters at fire: 4,000
Fire engines responding: 400
Largest single fire: 13,840 acres
9-1-1 calls received, first 24 hours: 3,000
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